fire lays? (a lost survival skill)

Fire Lays…

It surprises me that many people never heard the term “fire lays.”

But understanding it, lays the foundation for any person to light a fire in any condition.

Learn the fundamentals of the “fire lay,” here.

Note:  Fundamental skills are not sexy, but they are what separates the novice from the expert.

Check this video and become a MASTER FIRE BUILDER.

Stay Prepared, -Lou

Long Range Shooting: Understanding Extreme Spread And Standard Deviation

With the increase in interest in long-range shooting, the terms extreme spread (ES) and standard deviation (SD) are being thrown around a lot. What exactly is ES and SD? More importantly, should you really care about them? And what do they mean to the expected performance of your ammunition? I will offer some definitions and examples for the first question and the answer to the second question depends on whether you are a handgunner or rifleman, a plinker or a precision shooter.

Read more: http://www.gunsandammo.com/tips-tactics/long-range-shooting-understanding-extreme-spread-and-standard-deviation/#ixzz5RH07stIX

 

Securing the Perimeter of Your Property

One of preppers’ (or any homeowner’s) greatest fears is an intruder breaking into their home, whether it’s while we’re comfortable in our own bed or away at work or on vacation. Securing the home perimeter is essential to keeping your home and family safe. If s***t hits the fan, you better hope your home defense system features several well thought out lines of defense.

There are many ways that the home can be secured, ranging from small changes in your daily life to high-tech security systems and cameras. Whether you live in a rural area or in the middle of NYC, protecting your home is a priority. Choosing a safe location is a great way to secure your home, from there, there are many things you can do to make sure your home is intruder-proof.

First Line of Defense:

  • Fences, Gates, Bushes
    • Define and defend the boundary of your property. While man-made fences and gates are a great way to keep people out, they may signal to intruders that you have something they want. Bushes and shrubs offer boundary definition that also serves to block an intruder’s view of what you might have that they want, while adding aesthetics to your landscape as well! While bushes and shrubs add a barrier, they can also serve as a hiding place for intruders, so make sure you keep them neat and trimmed, forcing any intruder into an open area on your property that can be seen from the home.
    • Thorny plants such as holly or roses near entrances into the home also add a deterrent. Keeping these near ground-floor windows adds an extra thorn in any intruder’s side.
  • Dogs
    • Dog, a man’s best friend, is a great guard! While his barking may be annoying to you at times, he sure is loyal to you and your home. Any intruder would be afraid of climbing over a fence of a guarded property. If you are really serious about keeping your home secure, get both an indoor and an outdoor dog. Put interconnected bells on the strategic points of the fence around your property so if an intruder tries to climb over, he will set off your makeshift alarm, which will surely wake up your dog.
  • Lights
    • I can’t stress enough how important lights are! Don’t be stingy when “shedding light” on possible intruders. Make sure you get motion sensor lights for strategic areas around your home, shed and garage. When you’re not home, keep a light on outside and look into timed lights for the inside to create an illusion that someone is home.
    • Use large house numbers and place them where they are easily seen if the cops, ambulance, or firefighters have to come. This could be on the home, high enough to see from the road and with a light shining on them at night. If you live in a rural area, far off of the road, make sure your house numbers are large on your mailbox, tree, or post on the road and be sure that they’re reflective or have a light shining on them.
  • Neighbors
    • Get to know them. They may or may not be a resource for keeping an eye on your house. Keep in mind that they may also be a threat. This is where the “keep your friends close but your enemies closer” proverb comes into play.

High-Tech Defense:

  • Security Systems
    • There are plenty of companies to choose from: ADT, Honeywell, LifeShield. If you live in an urban area, the alarm is more likely to bring the authorities to your home in time to catch the intruders. Even in a rural area, the alarm itself could deter an intruder and the authorities could catch them at their next target. Do keep in mind that these systems require batteries and cables to work, as well as personnel that monitor your security system. If they don’t show up at work due to a disaster – you are on your own.
  • Cameras
    • A camera system is something that you can spend a lot of money on, or you could do it cheaply by rigging it yourself. Make sure they can see the entirety of your property: around the house, along the driveway (maybe you have to put them in the trees or make-shift shelves). A camera system could also help keeping the kids in line—try sneaking out now! You can set up live feed on a secured web address and be able to check what each camera sees from your phone, tablet, computer or directly on a screen in your command center (safe room is a great place to have a screen that runs on a generator).

Did you come up with a creative DIY security rig or alarm idea? Send it to us so we can share it with fellow preppers.

To your survival,
Richard Marshall

Survival Dentistry

Dental care is pertinent to our health. Most tooth decay and periodontal disease (gum disease) are caused by a lack of proper dental hygiene and an unbalanced diet. While there are few deaths from dental problems today, it wasn’t that long ago that most people, regardless of social class, had to have their teeth extracted in order to keep their body healthy and alive. In a TEOTWAWKI situation, with the poor diets that many have today, there are bound to be many deaths from dental problems.

The main mode of defense against these dental problems is taking control of them right now. Proper dental care now can keep you healthy and happy now and in an SHTF situation.

  • Brushing your teeth twice a day keeps gum inflammation down and teeth clean of bacteria, which can cause cavities and tooth decay.
  • Flossing is an important part of dental routine that many of us forget. It clears the bacteria from teeth and gums, and debris that toothbrushes alone cannot.
  • Regular visits to the dentist twice a year allows the hygienist to thoroughly clean the teeth and make sure there are no further dental problems such as periodontal disease or cavities.
  • Eat a balanced diet.  Eating a balanced diet of fruits, veggies and whole grains will keep your body health and your mouth healthy, which is pertinent to survival now or in a TEOTWAWKI situation.

In the wake of a disaster, dentists will be in high demand as regular cleanings become unavailable. Eventually dentists will close altogether because their supplies and instruments will become unavailable. In order to prepare for this situation, it is important to prepare a survival dental kit.

  • Toothbrushes, toothpaste, and floss are essential dental care items to have in your dental prep kit, as they are the first line of defense in prevention of tooth decay and periodontal disease.
  • Peroxide is widely used to sanitize the mouth and whiten teeth and is dirt cheap to stock up on. Be careful though; overusing peroxide can cause an oral yeast infection.
  • Coconut oil. Coconut oil is used for what’s called “oil puling,” a technique that has apparently been used in the ancient world to draw toxins out of your mouth and ensure dental health.
  • Oil of Cloves. This is an age-old remedy for tooth aches. Rubbing this on a tooth can relieve a toothache and when mixed with zinc oxide powder, it can be made into a thick filling for a cavity. Beeswax can also be used to make fillings if necessary.
  • Oregano oil. This handy oil helps kill infections, heal your gums and alleviate dental pain.
  • Other home remedies for relieving toothaches and numbing a tooth that can be used in the wake of disaster, such as a cotton ball soaked in alcohol, icepacks, baking soda dissolved in water, and warm salt water.
  • Dental Hygienist tools, which include a mouth mirror, tongue scraper, and interdental cleaners of various shapes and sizes to make sure your teeth and mouth are free of harmful bacteria when you can’t regularly visit a dentist.
  • Forceps, pliers, or sturdy tweezers will be necessary in order to pull teeth out if they are decaying or causing gum disease. There are also older tools such as dental keys that can be used to extract a tooth if necessary, although these have been known to break the tooth off, causing further dental infection or disease, or break the jaw.

Remember that extractions will be painful and your anesthesia will probably involve ice (or a large brick), so do whatever you can to keep your teeth in good shape to avoid dealing with actual restorative work after SHTF. If your teeth are in a really bad shape, my advice to you is to get good quality dentures or implants while you can.

Dental care is essential to our health and it begins with prevention. To prepare yourself and your survival dental kit, check out www.prepperdental.com for the essential instruments and supplies and Murray Dickson’s book Where There is No Dentist.

To your survival,
Richard Marshall

Old World Cooking Methods with a Modern Twist

We’re spoiled with electric ovens, stoves, microwaves, and refrigerators. So what happens when the economy plummets, natural disaster strikes, or the country is attacked and we lose electricity and our means of cooking food the way we’ve always known how to? This is why it is essential to know how to use old world cooking methods.

While there are many items that you probably have stored in order to cook with in case you lose electricity, such as propane, kerosene, solar-powered stoves and ovens, knowledge of the primitive way of cooking is always a good skill to have. Open fire cooking was used up until the 18th century, so how did they do it and how can we make it our own in the 21st century?

Surely we’ve all done this sort of open fire cooking when camping. This is a very simple and quick way to get a fire going in order to cook food to nourish your body in the wake of an apocalypse. To cook in these open fire pits, you may use the familiar style of sticking the hot dog on the stick and roasting it. However, there are many other ways to cook more than just hotdogs and s’mores on the open fire with items that you probably have around the house, or items that are easily found among debris.

  • Foil — one of the quickest and easiest ways to wrap food up and throw it on the fire as it is. You can cook corn, bake potatoes, and make whole meals of meat and veggies! Deer steak? Squirrel on a skewer? Be creative here. Remember that you can use certain kinds of wood (like applewood) to add a smoky flavor.
  • Dutch Oven — you should have at least one of these. It could be made out the traditional cast iron or some newer versions are made out of aluminum. You can find old poles around the yard, off of the old swing-set, or among the debris in the wake of disaster, and construct a teepee like structure to hold the Dutch oven up over the fire and get cooking soup, stew, biscuits and more. You can also use the lid of the Dutch oven as a makeshift griddle.
  • The Grill — that gas grill you worship on the weekends can be useful in the wake of a disaster, even when no propane can be found. You can use the grill top to place over an open fire, using some old bricks or stones to raise it above the fire and get grilling.
  • Brick Stove — those same bricks lying among the debris can be used to make a small stove as well. You can make these stoves by creating a bottom compartment where the fire will be made and making a stone top over the fire, where you can heat pots and pans.
  • Can Stove — sometimes called hobo stove, can be extremely useful and easy to make out of an old can. This is definitely a more modern method. They are also useful because they are lightweight, unlike the Dutch oven or the grill top, and can be carried easily. Because they are so small, they can also use a wide array of heating mechanisms (candles, small twigs, alcohol, etc.)
  • Mud Oven — some food just needs time in the oven to taste good. While the Dutch oven works well, you may not have one, so making an oven could be the solution. You can build these ovens with clay or mud from the ground, creating a hard flat surface with a hood over it. The fire is put in the oven to heat it and then taken out and the food is placed in and cooked from the trapped heat. An oven could also be made out of old stones or brick. A makeshift oven can also be made with a hood made out of an old mailbox or scrap piece of curved metal.

To make survival cooking more convenient, purchase a good cooking kit made for camping. A Coleman Aluminum Mess Kit is only $10 and contains and aluminum skillet, pot, pan and mug.

To your survival,
Richard Marshall

Are Leftists Sabotaging Your Operation?

These “tips” may sound like just the typical way that government bureaucracy works, but when employed against you in the private sector, they can be damaging. Once work and reeducation camps are established again, recalcitrant detainees may rebel through these tactics. In doing so, their classification must be changed to ‘nonessential laborers’. If you believe in the future that your operation may have suffered from infiltration, here are some warning signs to look for:

List of Timeless Tips from the Simple Sabotage Field Manual
Managers and Supervisors
1.  To lower morale and production, be pleasant to inefficient workers; give them undeserved promotions. Discriminate against efficient workers; complain unjustly about their work.
2.  Demand written orders.
3.  “Misunderstand” orders. Ask endless questions or engage in long correspondence about such orders. Quibble over them when you can.
4.  Do everything possible to delay the delivery of orders. Even though parts of an order may be ready beforehand, don’t deliver it until it is completely ready.
5.  Don’t order new working’ materials until your current stocks have been virtually exhausted, so that the slightest delay in filling your order will mean a shutdown.
6.  Order high-quality materials that are hard to get. If you don’t get them, argue about it. Warn that inferior materials will mean inferior work.
7.  In making work assignments, always sign out the unimportant jobs first. See that the important jobs are assigned to inefficient workers of poor machines.
8.  Insist on perfect work on relatively unimportant products; send back for refinishing those that have the least flaws.
9.  Employees: Work slowly. Think of ways to increase the number of movements needed to do your job: use a light hammer instead of a heavy one; try to make a small wrench do instead of a big one.
10.  Organizations and Conferences: When possible, refer all matters to committees for “further study and consideration.” Attempt to make the committees as large and bureaucratic as possible. Hold conferences when there is more critical work to be done.

What To Do When Your Gun Fails

When your pistol malfunctions during a range session, do you stop and look at it, dumbfounded? Do you set your pistol down and raise your hand for assistance because you aren’t sure how to remedy the problem? These are common reactions for a new shooter, but if you’re going to carry a pistol or keep one in the home for defensive purposes, you need to be your gun’s emergency roadside mechanic. After all, lives may depend on your ability to fix your gun and get back in the fight.

When pressing the trigger of your pistol produces a “click” instead of a “bang,” it’s time to employ the immediate-action technique, also known as “tap, rack, assess.” There are a few ways to accomplish this, but they all share some common traits.

The first step to clearing most malfunctions is to release your grip with your non-dominant hand and use your palm to slam the bottom of the magazine. The rationale is that the malfunction may have been caused by the magazine not being fully seated in the magazine well. “Tapping” the magazine will help ensure it’s locked in place.

Although this is an important first step, merely tapping the magazine won’t enable you to fire the pistol. You need to cycle the action to ensure any obstruction in the chamber is cleared and a new round is fed.

To facilitate this, reach over the pistol and pinch the slide between your fingertips and the heel of your palm. Be sure to grip behind the eject port so your hand doesn’t block the ejection port and induce a double-feed stoppage.

Grip established, rack the slide forcefully to the rear. Racking the slide is easier with the momentum generated by a quick, aggressive cycling action. To ensure the slide travels completely rearward and therefore has the most spring tension to drive it back into battery, at the same time push forward on the grip with your dominant hand.

When you release the slide, allow your non-dominant hand to strike your chest to confirm you don’t ride the slide as it travels forward. Riding the slide decelerates the slide’s forward movement and could prevent the pistol from going back into battery. A popular tweak to this technique is to rotate the pistol to the right—toward the ejection port—so gravity will help clear the spent casings or bad rounds from the pistol.

After tapping the magazine and racking the slide, quickly assess the condition of your pistol and the threat. If you cant the pistol slightly to the left, you’ll be able to see if the slide is completely forward. If it is, your gun should be ready to fire.

At this point, it’s time to determine if firing your pistol is an appropriate response. Does the assailant still present an imminent deadly threat, or has he fled, taken a hostage or given up? Remember your response must be based on the current actions of the assailant. Just because he presented a deadly threat 10 seconds ago doesn’t mean it would be legally justified to shoot him now.

When I was a new police officer 20 years ago, we were taught to clear a malfunction while keeping the arm extended, with the pistol oriented to the threat. This was intended to prevent your adversary from recognizing your pistol was not operational. Also, since your muzzle was still pointed at the threat, it was considered faster to aim your pistol when the stoppage was remedied.

Today, most pistol instructors advocate keeping the gun close to the body while clearing a malfunction. After all, a seamstress doesn’t thread a needle with fully extended arms. Doing so would be quite frustrating and time-consuming. While sewing may not be an urgent endeavor, clearing a malfunctioned pistol certainly is.

In the modern version of the immediate-action technique, bring the gun toward your body and orient the magazine toward your non-dominant side. This positions it perfectly for a firm palm strike to the bottom of the magazine to ensure it’s fully seated.

Rather than racking the slide as described earlier, instructors like Dave Spaulding advocate a different technique. Rather than grip the slide with your fingertips and hand—thumb facing toward you—turn your hand over, thumb facing away.

Grip the slide with your thumb and as many fingertips as you can fit onto the slide. This is a more natural motion than gripping with your thumb facing toward you.

With this method, instead of rotating the pistol to the right—toward the ejection port—rotate the pistol to the left. This may seem counterproductive, but when you consider you are rotating the gun until the top of the slide is in about the seven o’clock position, it’s easy to see that gravity will still help clear the ejection port of spent casings or unfired rounds gumming up the works.

Again, rotating the pistol inward is more natural than rotating it outward. Many equate this to pouring out a beverage. You would almost certainly invert your cup by rotating it inward. It’s easier to turn the cup upside down this way. Your pistol is really no different.

Double Feeds

The immediate-action sequence won’t clear a double-feed. If you’ve already performed the sequence and the pistol still won’t fire, or if you recognize that your pistol has a double-feed before executing immediate action, here’s what you need to do.

First, you must remove the magazine from the pistol. Depending on the pistol and magazine you’re using, you may simply be able to grasp the bottom of the magazine firmly and strip it from the pistol. However, on certain pistols and with certain magazines, this won’t work. In these cases, you will have to first lock the slide to the rear by pressing up on the slide stop while fully retracting the slide.

How will you know whether you can get away with not locking the slide to the rear? Practice with your carry gun and magazine. This is something you need to know before you’re fighting for your life.

My police training taught me to drop the magazine after stripping it from the gun. After all, the magazine could be the culprit. But police officers typically carry at least two spare magazines.

What if the magazine you strip from the pistol is your your only one? When the magazine in your pistol is all you’ve got, secure it under your shooting-side armpit until you’ve cleared the malfunction.

After removing the magazine, invert the pistol and cycle the slide until the chamber is clear. Most instructors recommend racking the slide three times. Once or twice may not be enough, and if the third time isn’t a charm, chances are neither will subsequent attempts. If you see the spent casing eject after the first time you rack the slide, you can move on.

At this point, you have an empty pistol. If you have a spare magazine, load it into the pistol, but don’t forget you still need to rack the slide to chamber a round. If you had only one magazine, retrieve it from under your arm, load and rack the slide. This is not a particularly complicated process, but it must be practiced extensively because it needs to happen ASAP.

Speaking of practice, have you considered that an injury to your hand or arm may require you to clear a malfunction one-handed? If you understand what needs to occur mechanically to fix your gun, the technique for one-handed malfunction clearing is really no mystery.

The immediate-action sequence can be performed by tapping the bottom of the magazine on your knee, hooking the rear sight or ejection port on your belt, holster, boot or other solid object and racking the slide. No big deal, although it’s something you really need to practice.

Safety First

For safety, this technique and the following one should be practiced initially with dummy rounds. You must be mindful that your muzzle isn’t pointed at you or anyone else. Only when you are proficient with these techniques using inert training rounds should you even consider practicing them with live rounds. When you do, start slowly, with safety always being the most important consideration.

The next technique deals with clearing a double-feed with only one hand. For a right-handed shooter executing a right-handed-only double-feed clearance, hook the rear sight or ejection port on your belt, holster or other hard object while pushing up on the slide stop with your thumb and racking the slide completely rearward.

With the slide locked open, hook the magazine on a pocket and press the magazine release then rip the magazine from the pistol. If that’s your only magazine, you will need to pick it up because it’s kind of important.

With the magazine ejected, hook the rear sight or ejection port on something and cycle the slide as previously described to clear the chamber. Holster the pistol. Insert the magazine. Draw the pistol and hook the rear sight or ejection port on an object to cycle the slide and chamber a round.

As you probably guessed, clearing a double-feed left-handed can be more difficult—especially for right-handed shooters but even for lefties, since few guns offer ambidextrous slide locks and you have to deal with controls on the other side of the gun.

The pistol doesn’t care which hand you use to clear it. As far as the pistol is concerned, the same thing is happening.

To lock the slide back with the left hand, you’ll need to apply upward pressure on the slide stop with your left index finger rather than your right thumb. Similarly, you’ll need to press the magazine release with your left index finger while stripping out the magazine with the help of your pocket.

From there, cycle the slide until the spent casing is ejected. If your holster is on your right side because you’re a right-hander, you’ll need to place the gun between your knees or kneel and secure it behind your bended knee (with the muzzle facing away from you). Insert the magazine. Hook the slide or ejection port and rack the slide to chamber a round.

And remember that if you’re dealing with a malfunction in real life while facing a deadly threat, if “tap, rack, assess” doesn’t address the problem, running to cover is an excellent second step when such a move is possible.

Guns malfunction. Murphy’s Law dictates this will occur at the most inopportune time. That’s why it’s important to have an immediate and reliable solution to clear any type of pistol stoppage.

When your handgun malfunctions in the middle of a fight, don’t contemplate it—fix it.

 

source: handgunsmag.com

 

 

[Shelter Series] The 4 W’s to Site Selection

When building a shelter, you need to know the 4 W’s… but one is potentially deadly.

 

It’s called the “widow-maker”.

 

Watch this video now to see Josh from Prepper Advantage teach the 4 W’s, and you’ll never have any problem with survival shelter ever again!

 

The video is on our Youtube Channel HERE.

 

It won’t cost a penny to watch, and is one of the most critical things you need to learn as a survivalist.

 

Click HERE now to watch the video absolutely FREE.

 

Stay Prepared,

 

-Lou

 

Avoiding Deficiencies in a Post-Apocalyptic World

by Richard Marshall

Tactical and Survival

Out of food? Go to Trader Joe’s! But what if there is not a Trader Joe’s? 7-11 will do, right? Who doesn’t like a Slurpee and beef jerky? No 7-11 you say? Yes, when disaster strikes, there might be a possibility that stores will not be of service and you will have to rely on Mother Nature to supply your food. After all, 7-11 or no, you still have to eat. It’s crucial that you avoid vitamin and nutrient deficiencies if you want to stay alive!

If you want to stay nourished, you know you should keep a nice survival food stash. It’s only one of the most discussed survival topics! Dried or canned meats, dried fruits, nuts, peanut butter, and canned vegetables are good examples of highly nutritious foods to keep around. In order to survive, keeping yourself nourished is absolutely essential, especially if you want to avoid deficiencies.

Depending on the vitamin or mineral, deficiencies can affect the body in many different ways. Everything from major illnesses or depression can be attributed to deficiencies, and can affect all parts of the body, so deficiencies are not something you can take lightly.

  • Vitamin A deficiencies may include slow bone formation, night blindness, dry eyes which can lead to blindness, increased susceptibility to cold and virus infections, and frequent infections of the bladder or urinary tract.
  • There are six different types of vitamin B: B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, and B12. Deficiency of any of these B vitamins can range from mild to severe symptoms like chronic fatigue, muscular weakness, or dry cracked skin to dementia and depression.
  • Vitamin C deficiency symptoms include dry hair and skin, weakness, nosebleeds. Severe deficiency of vitamin C can lead to scurvy which rare but not impossible.
  • A deficiency of Vitamin D can lead to irritability and depression, as well as bone and muscle problems including, but not limited to, rickets, osteoporosis, and skeletal deformities and retardation in young children. Vitamin D deficiencies can also increase your risk of Type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure. Vitamin D is a critical vitamin found in many foods ranging from egg yolks, salmon and sweet potatoes, and has many healthy attributes ranging from mental clarity and focus to maintaining the proper amount of calcium in your blood.

Given that other vitamins and minerals perform essential functions in our bodies, deficiencies can cause major problems for our bodies if we don’t properly keep up with healthy food intake. Deficiencies can lower our chances of survival during a chaotic situation such as a major disaster. While the effects of vitamin deficiencies may take a while to appear, the effects tend to linger once they do.

Many crucial nutrients can be found in nature. The most essential nutrients are (in order of importance) protein, carbohydrates, fat, salt and potassium. Protein is most commonly found in meat and fish, but protein is also found in dairy and nuts. Carbohydrates are found in grains, fruits, and a lot of dairy products: dairy products actually contain more carbohydrates than protein. Fat, which is critical for energy and protecting the body from extreme temperatures, is found in many foods, but the most preferred portable sources of fat are peanut butter, canned fish (sardines in particular), nuts, and dried coconut, as well as many food bars. Salt and potassium, which regulate heart and muscle functions, are also found in many natural foods. Potassium is commonly found in fruits and vegetables, such as bananas, cantaloupe and broccoli, but is also found in yogurt and white beans. Salt is found naturally in meats and nuts, and most vegetables have at least some natural salts.

Disaster can strike when you least expect it, so it’s good to be prepared! Proper nourishment is very important in everyday life, but imagine if you had no other option butto stay properly nourished to stay alive. To survive in the wild with limited resources, keep the following in mind:

  • Fish has a ton of survival nutrients, including many necessary vitamins and minerals (something many people aren’t aware of);
  • Some sort of edible wild berries grow in most US states and are rich in vitamins, C, E and K;
  • Meat is rich in protein fat, iron and minerals;
  • Mushrooms are a great source of vitamin D;
  • Many US states have watercress and asparagus, which are rich in vitamin C, B, Folate and a lot more;
  • Dandelions make a good salad.

Get ready now by studying local edible plant live, make sure you have plenty of seeds to plant a garden and continue to grow your food stash. A fun fact before you go: most basic essential vitamins can be found in broccoli and Brussels sprouts!

How race traitors caused Custer’s defeat at the Little Big Horn.

ShieldWall Network editorial: It was illegal for any trader or merchant to sell repeating rifles to the nonWhite savages who are commonly referred to then as now as “Indians” in 1876. By law, the United States, while imperfect, then still recognized a racial adversary when it encountered one. However, just as today there are White business owners who care only about their bottom line rather than their racial loyalty (and hire illegal immigrants, for example), there were already then renegades, White business owners who sold military grade weapons to the merciless Indian savages, knowing full well that those weapons would be used to murder Whites. Military historians believe that those race traitors, a precursor to capitalist bosses of the current year, were largely responsible for the deaths of George Armstrong Custer and his command at the Battle of Little Big Horn. 

According to exhaustive archaeological research at the Custer Battlefield site, the most common weapons used by the Indian tribes were, in order of number, .44 caliber Henry repeaters, .50 caliber Sharps, Winchester ‘73s in .44-40, Springfield’s Muzzleloading Trade Muskets in various calibers, and an eclectic collection of other firearms, including Smith and Wesson .44s, Spencer rifles, and one Forehand and Wadsworth .32 revolver.

Even though 25-30% of the Indian warriors had repeating rifles, the most telling weapon on the battlefield that day in 1876 was the bow and arrow. It was the combination of mass flights of arrows, backed with the rapid-fire Henrys, that such a devastating effect on the 7th Calvary.

How did the Allied Indian tribes get their Henry rifles? Interesting question. The Western traders solemnly swore to military investigators in 1876, that they never sold or traded Henry or other repeaters to the Indians. The Army and Navy journal of that year suggested, sarcastically, that perhaps Winchester should go after the Indian tribes for patent infringement- since no one would admit to providing the rifles, the Indians must be manufacturing the rifles themselves.

After the battle, General George Crook noted that the Sioux warriors were more effective on horseback with bows and arrows, rather than the single-shot trade muskets. But he added, when the Sioux came into possession of the breech-loader and metallic cartridge, which allowed them to load and fire from a horse with perfect ease, they became at once 10,000 times more formidable.

Read more: http://www.gunsandammo.com/historical/little-bighorn-part-2-gun-stories/#ixzz5OlC9xZOq